Technical people always struggles with that, I really know how it is like.
If you want to work with finance, you'll have to explain your research in a way three kinds of people understand. The main: finance professionals. Yet HR and management people must understand it either, if you're applying for finance industry companies, HR and management will probably have a reasonable finances knowledge to understand you. So, in that case, you can strongly frame it in finance language.
You should focus on what your research might contribute with finances, or, at least, what skills you've developed doing that. Skills directly related to the positions you're looking for. Some examples:
- My research developed a X model which can be used for cash flow optimization in linear models.
- I've developed a Y kind of research, which developed my statistical skills, what improved my ability to purpose stock models.
But if you're not applying for a finance industry company, but for a finance position in another industry, the picture changes. You'll have to frame it simpler, as the HR will probably not be used to financial vocabulary, and your probable boss might understand nothing about finance. In that case, you'll have to expose the same things, but in a way everyone with high school understands. Some examples:
- My research developed a model for cash flow that ensures your company will keep enough money available yet optimizes investment and return.
- I've developed a research which developed my statistical skills to develop a model that picks the best stocks.
And please note, my examples are a way to illustrate what I've meant, only. They're not exactly properly ways to express it when actually applying.
You'll also have to be careful to the difference between writing this, in an application form or resume (like question asked), and, in the future, how to explain it verbally, to a person, in an interview. The approach is the same, but the way to frame is different.