I would hesitate to hire anyone who broke any rule serious enough that they were fired on the spot. It doesn't really matter whether it was stealing, drinking on the job, poking around in confidential files, or whatever, it was bad, really bad.
So first, put the job on your resume. You worked there. Don't put why you left on your resume. If you get an interview, great! They don't always ask why you're looking for a new job. This might work out. Of course, if someone asks why you left, you will have to tell the truth. You have two approaches here.
In the first one, you start mild and basically make them drag it out of you. If they ask why you left, you say what you're looking for. If they ask "have you already quit?" you say you're available immediately. If they flat out ask were you fired, you admit yes, you were, due to a disagreement with your boss. And eventually they get the whole story. The upside to this is they may not persist all the way to the full story, and so you may be able to establish a "clean slate" at the new job, though I suspect you'll always worry you might be found out. The downside is, if they get to "fired for stealing" and they had to drag it out of you, you were trying to conceal it, they will not hire you. That's a risk.
The second approach will require you to do some deep thinking and learning in advance. Then when they ask why you left your job you say something like "I made a big mistake, an error in judgement. I did something foolish and they rightly fired me for it. The actual offense was minor - I shoplifted from the cafeteria because I had forgotten my lunch money - but the issue was my judgement. I know that now. I've learned from it." Be prepared to answer questions like "what would you do today if you found yourself in that situation again?" as well as detailed questions about whether charges were laid etc. The upside is that by being honest about your offense, you have a chance to show them you won't do it again. The downside is, they might decide it's not worth finding out.
Either way you stand a good chance of being well qualified for a job but not getting it. I recommend you try the second way first a few times. If it works, you'll be able to relax and put the past behind you. But if you have interviews end quickly after revealing the offense, you may want to try the first way for a while. Make sure you apply to a LOT of jobs and work HARD on your interviewing skills - you have a bit of an uphill battle, but should be able to overcome this eventually.