I know that sounds wishy-washy on the surface. But, looking over the other answers provides a lot of absolute answers. I say that they are all wrong because of their absoluteness. The correct answer is: it depends on the job.
You didn't say what kind of job it is.
If you're applying for a fast food position, many places will be quite delighted to have a good employee for a year. What such organizations do not want are people who “don't work out”, being fired after a few months of poor performance. If you serve them well for a year, that can be a mutually beneficial situation.
If you're applying for a management position which involves developing and implementing a multi-year strategy, then your plans to vacate will absolutely interfere with the organization's plans for the job.
If they ask, then be honest. (Yes, tell them.)
If you find there is cause for them to heavily weigh this factor in, then supreme honesty may proactively offer this fact. (Yes, tell them.)
If you aren't aware of this being a particular harm, then don't go out of your way to proactively bring up a point that may not be in your favor. (No, don't tell them.)
You see, sometimes the answer is “No”, but sometimes it is “Yes”. Whether you should tell them or not may depend on what type of position you're seeking, which may depend on who the organization is. Since you mention plans to further education, my guess is that this job you seek is a bit lower on the hierarchy, in which case a year may typically be a good amount of time that is beneficial to the organization. However, that is a guess involving some speculation, so you'll ultimately need to make your own decision that actually does apply to the circumstances you are actually facing.
If you don't want to feel guilty, then apply positive principles in life. Don't be dishonest. Don't do something that you know will unreasonably hurt them. (Of course, you leaving may be non-beneficial to them, whenever that does occur. That's reasonable and expected. If you identify something less reasonably expected, then do communicate with them.) Then, that image you see in the mirror each morning can still be an image of a person you can respect.
One more side note: despite my heavy promotion of honesty, there can be a case of being “too honest”. From your question about volunteering information that might be harmful to you, I suspect this may be something good for you to consider.
There used to be a day when I questioned whether a person can truly be “too honest”. After all, if truth is a good thing, how can there be too much of it? I wondered why some amount of imperfection would be better than a total pursuit of this great principle. I just didn't understand, back then. Now I do. So, let me explain.
Honestly sharing lots of unnecessary details that may be to your detriment can demonstrate that you lack a bit of understanding of how organizations work. Even if people accept the details that you share, the fact that a person volunteered such details so unnecessarily can indicate that they aren't quite grasping a bit of a “bigger picture”.
I am not at all trying to advocate being dishonest, and there is some admirable aspect to being willing to be very open and honest, but going out of your way to bring up all of your faults can sometimes cause more harm than good, uselessly.
Yes, it is good if you are willing to be inspected and evaluated. However, if you have negative things about you (as everyone does), it doesn't mean that other people like to evaluate your negative things. Let's face the facts: these things are negative. And negative things can be less fun to deal with. So exposing your negative traits and pointing them out to people can be unpleasant for them, and unpleasant for you, particularly in the short term. Plus, unforgiving people may be prone to not forget what they've learned, causing problems in the long term too. And, there might be absolutely no good that gets accomplished by all this. Negative results all around, without positive results. That is the price when there is actually too much of proactive honesty (even though honesty is always extremely important, and even proactive honesty can often be a very good thing in some cases).
I've learned that you can be very honest without pursuing honesty so fervently that you prioritize it above all other priorities. I pursue these principles:
Never be dishonest
Be honest when appropriate
Don't be inappropriate by causing unnecessary problems in a goal to be super-honest
Since I've tried living like that, I've found a lot of people have accepted my “business sense”/“leadership abilities” better. Yet I feel like I've done right by people and maintained a real, strong, respectable characteristic of honesty.