To my understanding your situation is:
- You were looking for a job, and were working with the recruiter to find one.
- The recruiter provided some opportunities, from which you recognised the company you are currently with.
- You asked the person you knew in the company about the job, and you received more information.
- You were contacted directly by the company, and subsequently were recruited.
In this scenario, it was the company that undercut the recruiter, not yourself.
There would have been an agreement when the position was opened with the recruiter which detailed payment. It may have been an upfront fee for them to find and suggest well fitting candidates for the position, it could instead have been a payment for successfully recruiting one of their sourced candidates, and there may have even been a flat rate commission to be paid if the company successfully appointed someone to the position other than candidates suggested by the recruiter as a protection for the recruiter's work.
We can only guess at what the agreement was, because as mentioned by the other answers, this issue is between your company and the recruiter. It may seem like the recruiter didn't get paid, but that is simply because there is no reason for your company or the recruiter to inform you that the payment was made.
Recruiters compete to find candidates for positions, and to find the right candidate they need as many people to pick from as they can. It would go against their business to blacklist candidates who did not stick with them, and so I wouldn't worry about them thinking negatively about you. They have contacted you again, and so they appear to have interest in you as a candidate to generate them business.