Make it clear that this is absolutely essential.
Have you done so already? As a manager, I know it can be hard to confront employees directly when they are doing something unacceptable. You mention there was a conversation something like this:
You: Can you please organize your code and properly use the development workflow we discussed.
Senior dev: I haven't gotten to that yet because I need to get these urgent features out.
What I'm wondering is, what was your reply to this? Did you make it clear that you disagree with this prioritization, and from now on, no new development should happen until he implements the correct process? If not, then the senior dev really hasn't been given a clear message. He might be left thinking his choice was the right one under the circumstances.
Step one is to clearly state what you expect to happen.
I see a lot of answers suggesting that you let him know that his job is on the line, etc. But don't do that until this basic step has occurred. He needs to know that this development process is mandatory, and getting it set up takes priority over everything else.
Step two is to provide support for him to learn the process.
I would offer to him to have another developer show how it is set up. You say that his lack of Git knowledge is the problem (despite claiming to know). Unless you are 100% sure of that, there is no need to address it directly. Simply point out that it would be easier and quicker for him to see how someone else already has it set up, and it would ensure that everyone is doing things the same way.
In the long run, if there is a consistent pattern of hiding the fact that he doesn't know something with workarounds, then this is an issue that needs to be addressed in some way (as it will be quite detrimental).
Step three is escalate - only if the above don't work.
Other answers have given pointers on how to do that.
Making your preferred commit path mandatory is a good practice on its own merits, but don't use it to solve this problem.
The basic issue is the senior dev needs to respect your role as team lead, and accept practices that you put in place. (Also, conversely, you need to clearly communicate your expectations if this isn't happening). Not doing this, and instead papering over the problem with technology, would be a mistake.
However, once the above communication has taken place, also making the process mandatory would be a good idea.