Let's start with the obvious workplace issues that have nothing to do with software development. You have stated he is your boss. He has every right to determine how he wants to manage design. It is not your call unless he decides it is your call. It is counterproductive to get upset about that. It is risky for your career at that particular place to get mad about him doing something that is a part of his ordinary responsibilities.
There are projects where this type of overarching design is common especially if the project is using Waterfall methodologies instead of Agile. It is common when there is a strong regulatory or legal aspect to the software or where the cost for bugs is very high such as in the Space program or for medical devices. In those worlds it is very critical that the design be done in advance and approved and that there be no deviation from the design without approval.
Whether your project falls into one of these categories is almost irrelevant though. The person in charge wants to use that technique and you have an obligation to follow his direction in this and to not resist it. It is what you are being paid for.
What you can do in this situation is do as you are asked to do. You can have professional discussions of alternative methods, but do not ever go behind his back and do things against the way he has designed the system even if you don't agree with his design. There are considerations you may not be aware of and to do so is insubordination and grounds for dismissal.
If you professionally discuss an alternative way to do things and he decides against your suggestion, then take it professionally and do not continue to argue. The decision in this project is his and he is the one who will have to pay the price if he was wrong. In no case should you argue. It is entirely possible to have cordial professional discussions of technical alternatives. This is a skill you need to have to be successful anyway, so this gives you a chance to practice. It is best to discuss alternatives at the start when things are first brought up not later after other parts of the project are depending on things being done in a certain way.
The more you support his decisions, the more likely he will listen to you when it is critical. Do not argue minor points.
You have apparently worked at this company for a long time, so work on this project and look for a project run by someone else to volunteer for. Or search out a new job if you can't deal with a perfectly reasonable management requirement. But don't ruin what reputation you have at this company by becoming known as the angry person who is not a team player. Stick it out and move to a different project. Use the opportunity to learn things about architecture that he can teach you and things like how to manage subordinates which are sometimes learned best by working for someone whose style is not your preferred one.
In your career, you will have to work with many different types of people with many different styles of management. You will work with people you don't personally like. You need to learn how to work with different styles and personality types and how to effectively present your ideas when you don't have free reign to do what you want. This is therefore an excellent opportunity for you to grow your soft skills.