Sadly, there is no easy way for you to raise this issue without damaging your relationship with your boss or your reputation at the company unless (1) you have already established yourself as the hardest and most productive worker in the team such that you’re considered indispensable or (2) your boss loves you more than cake. The primary reason for this is that most of the people you deal with, will feel that you are asking a hostile or antagonistic question.
Raising it with HR means you may be protected from hard retaliation, but it does not protect you from soft retaliation such as professional isolation, not being assigned to high-visibility projects, etc. Note that HR will contact your boss if you raise the issue.
Raising it with your boss will very likely result in him or her losing some amount of trust in you. What most supervisors want on their team are employees who not only can do the work, but have a positive attitude about getting their work done. While unfair, you will very likely be viewed from then on as not having the right attitude about work—e.g., the guy willing to spend some extra time to help a project over the finish line.
Probably the most tactful way to go about this would be the following question:
I’m committed and excited to help the team get this project over the finish line. I just had a very small question: are we authorized for overtime to get this done?
In most industries/locations, this would be a perfectly normal question. But as I mentioned above, you are a software developer in CA and the culture there is much different (in the sense that CA companies already feel that they provide many non-salary perks to all of their employees, such as transportation benefits, catered meals, and the highest software developer payscale in the US and probably the world). In such a world view, your question will more likely than not (and fairly or unfairly) be viewed as, “Here is one more benefit that you are not providing me that I am entitled to.”
What might be more acceptable in CA would be something along the lines of:
I’m committed and excited to help the team get this project over the finish line. I just had a very small question: can we be reimbursed for overtime meals?
It's not much, but it changes the request from one regarding legal issues to one about company policy for reimbursement and its views towards reciprocity, which may be viewed as less hostile.
As @Patricia notes in coments below, the elephant in the room is the question of whether you have been classified correctly as exempt/non-exempt. That is a legal question, and you’re probably not going to be offered legal advice on this board. Regarding your exempt/non-exempt status: I would not assume that you understand your proper classification as that is a legal determination. If you feel strongly that you have been misclassified, speak to an attorney.