First, I have worked with (and even been) the person who was new to the workplace who thought she was smarter than everyone else and I learned differently. I have also worked with several of these people and with others who at first glance might have seemed arrogant but were not.
The first thing though that I have to say is that based on your responses for legitimate requests for more information, you come across in writing as the arrogant one. You need to look out for how you personally communicate with people if you are to successfully solve your problem.
Often the problem is that the person new to the workplace has no idea of the type of experience anyone else has. They don't know this is not new information to you, they don't know that their attitude is annoying to more senior people.
So the first thing to do is assume that the person meant well. Don't get angry about this at first, but take the person aside and explain privately why their behavior is not appropriate. For most people this will solve the problem.
The genuinely arrogant though might need a stronger approach. Some people are hard to reach without a 2 by 4.
With those people you need to make sue they understand that you are senior to them and that in the case of a technical disagreement, your opinion is going to carry more weight than their shiny new degree. Tell them extensively why that is so and what accomplishments you have.
If you are their boss, then you can tell them outright that their behavior is unacceptable in the workplace. If you aren't their boss, then you may need to discuss the attitude adjustment with their boss and let him or her handle it.
You can also shut people down through peer pressure and ridicule. This is not a the best option, but sometimes it i the only thing that works. This is a drastic thing to do and can backfire, so don't do it unless the entire team is frustrated with the person and nothing else has worked.
The person may back off or he may quit which is a win if the behavior is truly obnoxious. However, what you described seemed to be more of a problem in general communication that true arrogance, so don't start out with this.
The other thing you need to look at is why is this behavior upsetting you so much. What you described seemed very mild to me and apparently to several other posters.
Sometimes, this might be a symptom that you are having difficulty dealing with a new employee who seems like a rising star to senior management. I know I felt this way when we hired a new guy once to do a task I would have loved to be assigned to but they hired this wonder boy before announcing the project. This become especially true when you start to hit the age when age discrimination happens.
Its hard to no longer be the wonder girl of your early 20s and then see others take over that role. But you have to realize that it isn't this person's fault that he got what you wanted.
The best way to deal with a situation like this is to treat this person very well and to compliment him when he does something good so that criticism doesn't make you seem like a person with a grudge. If you start to give people the benefit of the doubt and treat them with the same respect you want, then they tend to be more likely to treat you with respect.
Often when you release your initial annoyance that this person exists, you may find someone who you can mentor and who has something to teach you. In my case, the person they hired as the Wonder Kid eventually became my boss.
He turned out to be one of the two best bosses I ever had in 40 years of working even though he was half my age. Sometimes our initial impression is wrong. Always keep that in mind.
Another issue that comes up is that there is a generational difference and Millennials often communicate differently than Boomers or Gen Xers. It could be worth your while to look up some of the training offered in this area to understand how to communicate across generations.
It could also be a personality type conflict. You came across as a person who tends to hold to strict rules of behavior and this person may be more freewheeling than that. Again, if this is the case, do some reading on personality types, It helps to understand how different personality types communicate.