Depending on your university, the alumni association may be of great help.
They could help you get in touch with previous students now employed, who can in turn put you in touch with the right person in their company.
How can I find companies that have engineers/departments within my
area of expertise to look for internships bypassing all the
recruitment spam which hides the company's names thoroughly?
Work with your university's placement office. They usually have lists of companies offering internships.
Here are some ideas, you need to judge if they work in your case.
do a keywords-based search for companies in your area; example: internship, job, IoT, embedded engineering, ...
use "generic" job sites, which present the company names too; save the list, you might need it later;
discuss with your professors at the university, ask for company recommendations;...
Before the following:
if it exists ask your worker representation at your company
I think there should be some clarification on where the conflict could going. I would send a mail (BCC HR, and CC her boss) - take care that no information on you being gay is contained like:
My sexual orientation is personal information. You obtained knowledge in your ...