When there is renovation in progress things can become temporarily untidy. Your manager may not be able to do more than ask the renovators to clean up better but have no way of forcing the issue beyond complaining.
Two options appear to me.
Talk to the manager again, this may help, or may not. But at the very least it will be a nudge in the right direction and let them know that you view the matter seriously.
Secondly, and this is actually what I would do. Clean up your personal working environment yourself. Assuming you work in a reasonably small place it's totally acceptable for you to take a few minutes to tidy it up. In fact in my office we do have a good cleaner, but he has nothing to do really in my office apart from empty the rubbish and clean the floor if he can find anything on it. My office is large with me as the sole occupant. If you work with others, you may well find that if you take the initiative and clean your area, others will follow your example. I have seen this as well.
If the situation is health threatening, like rotting leftovers, or filthy toilets, then that's another story. At the end of the day, it's unreasonable to expect extensive renovations over two floors that take weeks not to create a bit of a mess and impact on all areas involved. And that's probably how your manager is viewing it, preferring the renovations to be done as quickly as possible before focusing on cleaning things up. Rather than possibly antagonizing renovators he/she has no control over, or slowing their work.