Don't worry about it, your actions are at worst amusing.
Bear in mind that part of the feelings of "what have I done" is due to the physical nature of a hangover. The lack of sugar in the body helps produce this feeling. Eating something sweet before going to sleep or first thing in the morning helps.
If I was you I would ignore the prohibition-era/bible-thumper comments elsewhere. Your actions come nowhere near alcohol abuse, if you went to AA with your story you'd get laughed out the door. You aren't the first or even the 100 millionth and first to drink a bit too much and say things that are true but potentially inappropriate. In fact, thats kind of the point of drinking alcohol, as the Romans said "in vino veritas", in wine there is truth. Many of the best friendships are started by such comments. Of course, YMMV and cultures are different, and you might start a bar-fight, but from what I know of the Dutch, I don't think you need to worry. And, a bar-fight would at least be memorable.
I can see how your first comment could be taken as racist. Only you know if you meant it that way, or if you do dislike first-world people in general due to the disproporate power and wealth we hold. Racism need not be about skin-colour. Or, you could just dislike rich people in general, or those who are rich without earning it, which is a form of classism. Neither is good, but it's the "in general" that can lead to bitterness/chip-on-the-shoulder and get in the way of personal or work relationships. You might want to bring up the subject again and explain what you meant.
(It's not a simple subject. Making the world a better place is a laudable goal, but when the rich and powerful try to do so it often backfires. The first-world has the wealth to do so, but how to go about it? It's easy to fall into the trap of "the white mans burden"; that is, to look down on those being helped and end up telling them how to live. On the other hand, so much money has been wasted when those being helped decide how the money is spent, on corruption, on arms, etc. This though, can be seen as only an excuse to do nothing. There is no doubt that groups like Oxfam, Concern, Trocaire etc do a lot of good and they are always short of money. Equally some of the EU's trade rules are designed to keep the first-world wealthy, e.g. chocolate. But, when they are changed, it does mean people become unemployed.)
It's hard to tell about your second comment. Does your colleague play on the opposite team to you? If so, your comment may have been taken a clumsy pass. If you meant that, I wouldn't worry, millions of relationships have started that way. If not, then its hard to see your comment as anything other than a barbed critisism. Possibly you owe that person an apology, which should be done when they are alone and in person. On the other hand, he got embarassed, so perhaps your comment had merit, e.g. he is abnoxiously uptight, in which case I would leave well enough alone.