That's "HR Business Partner" in corporate-speak. I think scenarios like this are literally what they are for. Just tell them that you feel you aren't getting candid feedback from your manager and that you feel he treats you differently from the rest of the team. Not in a professionally inappropriate way, but in a way that perhaps suggests some tension that you're not aware of. Ask them to talk to your manager and see if there are any unspoken concerns. Tell them that you are hoping to get X% bonus/raise this year or a promotion in time frame Y, and you feel your development goals are at risk because of inadequate performance feedback.
If HR is worth they checks they receive, they will be a middleman that helps you and your boss understand each other better. If they aren't, then you have some tough decisions to make, like whether to look for a different boss, or a company with better HR.
You also need to ask yourself what you want from your career. If your job is just a way to pay the bills, and you have a fulfilling hobby you do on the side, then don't concern yourself so much with every work relationship, as long as nobody is rocking the boat and you are getting compensated fairly. If, on the other hand, you have lofty goals and wish to advance to high levels, then having a supportive boss is absolutely the key to career progression. You will likely need high-profile projects, positive mentions to other management, and access to the best opportunities your team and company have to offer if you want to move upwards. It's pretty hard to get any of these without a boss that believes in you and is willing to do what it takes to help you move forward. A boss that says: "You're doing fine; keep it up" is doing none of those things.
In that case, you should shop around for a boss and team that is most likely to help you meet your career goals, making sure your new boss sees your current value and believes in your potential as much as you do. It's even better if you can sell someone on that team on your current position, so that it becomes a swap, rather than a net loss for your current team. That helps your current boss save face, and minimizes any hard feelings that might arise from wanting to change teams. Just tell folks that you want to try something new, pick up new skills, etc. This is common enough and understandable.
You know you are on your way up when your boss says: "I'm taking on this risky project because I think our team can deliver, and you are the key to success. Failing this is going to cost us big, so I really need you to hit a home run. I'll be giving you the feedback and sentiment from above as the project proceeds, but you gotta show me what you got and bring your A game." Or: "You're doing well, but we need to craft a stretch goal so I can justify your promotion next year." Or: "This is gonna be tough to hear, but I got some feedback from coworkers and some folks from another team. Let's work on your communication skills." Everyone can improve in some way, or be challenged because they are coasting. If your boss isn't challenging you and pushing you hard, then your boss isn't helping you move upwards. "You're doing fine, keep it up" is the worst feedback ever. If a good boss ever finds you in that position, what they will really say is: "I wonder what you're really capable of...let's find out."