What is the best/most professional way to do this? I was thinking of doing so over e-mail, would this be appropriate and if so is there a best way to frame this?
I suggest a two step approach:
Try asking your coworkers first about who left those things laying over the office. You can then kindly remind them to be more considerate on future situations when they eat or drink in the office workplace. This will surely make them more aware the next time and clean before leaving.
If no one comes up, or well if they do but continue to leave the office dirty on future occasion, you can then proceed to write an email to your boss explaining your situation. On it you can explain the situation (I suggest you refrain from pointing fingers, just stick to the fact that it was dirty) and ask him to write a reminder to everyone about this problem.
This way you are being professional, as you are first giving them the chance to change before escalating, and if you do escalate you are doing it in a polite and constructive way. If they continue to disobey that request from your boss then that would be a loss to them, as they have already been officially warned.