You should read the Mythical Man Month : Essays on Software Engineering book and the Bullshit Jobs: A Theory book. Of course, be aware also of Peter principle (it is a fixed point analysis).
Both are very relevant to your situation.
Brook's book (mythical man-month) demonstrate that communication between human software developers and their management is what makes most software development projects fail or be late (and in many cases, adding more manpower makes the project more late or worse). That was true in 1970s with punched cards computer and software, that is still true in 2020s with multicore computers with webcams. IIRC about half of today software projects are somehow "failing" - either buggy or not implementing correctly all the initially desired features.
Graeber's book (Bullshit jobs) argues the existence and societal harm of meaningless jobs. He contends that over half of societal work is pointless (and you can include a lot of software development in that classification), which becomes psychologically destructive when paired with a work ethic that associates work with self-worth.
Of course you need (if the success of your software development job matters to you) to calmly suggest to your manager that additional labour might help. He might have constraints you are not aware of (e.g. budget, timescale, client, etc...) and you should understand them.
The level of trust between you and your manager is specific to your particular situation: some managers are good persons, other are not. Some are proud to make their team happy and productive, others are just dreaming to climb the company organizational ladder. Most are in between.
You could (or not) consider writing - or contribute writing -, at home on your own computer, some open source software (e.g. on github or gitlab), perhaps RefPerSys. In some workplaces and legal systems this could even be part of your job (e.g. most of GCC or Linux kernel contributors are paid for their work). This paper on simple economics of open source is explaining why that could be your interest (such as your personal reputation in professional or IT related circles, or learning new IT technologies for a future job transition, and at the same time have fun).
If your professor was nice with you and you can and want to keep in touch with him, you might suggest your boss to pay some consultancy services to him.
Don't forget that the goal of a company is to maximize profit. Human staff (notably software developers) is always an implementation detail. And most of us software developers have some kind of impostor's syndrome (me included, and I am grandfather of 7 with a PhD in AI...). Remember of course Rice's theorem related to the Halting Problem. Read Gödel, Escher, Bach if you didn't read it... See also this draft report and the references inside it.
Alternatively (and related to the ongoing Covid 19 pandemics) ask politely for additional delays in your work.